This changes everything

There's an amazing word called sonder.

It's the realization that each random passerby is living a life as vivid and complex as your own. That every single person you see has their own goals, strengths, and struggles.

We can't help but imagine that everyone else sees the world pretty much like we do. But the truth is that most of those minds in the crowd would be utterly alien to you.

If you're detail-oriented, does it blow your mind that other people can submit a resume full of spelling mistakes? If you're a lover of beauty, how can other people ignore a gorgeous sunset? If you're focused on innovation, why are other people so stuck on tradition?

People's minds are structured very differently, and that's why it feels like we're talking past each other so often. What if there were a better way?

Learning to speak the secret language

Think about your group of friends or co-workers. Who's the planner? The crazy idea person? The cheerleader?

We don't want to box people in, but some natural archetypes do emerge in terms of how people's minds are organized. The problem is that it can take a while to understand which archetype fits other people and even ourselves.

Imagine if you could quickly exchange a single code word when you met someone: the name of your archetype. With this one word, you'd immediately understand what energizes them, how they absorb new information, and how they make decisions.

Think about how much that would transform your ability to communicate with your colleagues, friends, and romantic partners.

Good news: There are in fact 16 code words, and you're about to learn them.

October 1, 2020 Update:

I've updated the results algorithm for the first time in a few years. This is based on a combination of feedback from visitors (thank you!) and my own evolving opinions about the relative importance of each piece when calculating a person's most likely types.

The algorithm change isn't dramatic; but, among several changes, the most significant one is reducing the importance placed on the "type families" question toward the end (by the way, I also updated the descriptions of each of those families).

Any saved results URLs you have from the previous algorithm will automatically update to use the new one. And if you'd prefer to use the old version of the test, you can access it here.

P.S., Pro-tip for desktop users: you can use the right-arrow key on your keyboard to quickly advance through the instruction screens at the beginning of the test.

June 8, 2020 Update: Thanks for visiting. Do you have questions about race, racism, or the protests happening right now? If so, I'd like to humbly suggest another website I created that's dedicated to explaining race in America in an approachable, step-by-step way without judgment or politics. Thank you, and I hope you stay safe with everything going on.

April 26, 2020 Update: Redesigned the mobile version of this site. Thanks for sticking with it earlier when it wasn't as easy to use.


So what exactly are we talking about here?

Carl Jung—one of the most renowned psychologists in history—discovered patterns for how people take in new information and make decisions. He called these 8 patterns cognitive functions, and groupings of those functions became what we now call Myers-Briggs personality types.

Everyone is unique. But Jung's research revealed some clear correlations between personality attributes. For example, most people who speak quickly and "think out loud" tend to also recharge their energy by being around people. And most people who prefer step-by-step procedures also tend to be more oriented toward the tangible past or present than the future or the abstract.

By mastering type dynamics, you'll be able to answer questions like... (TIP: Throughout the site, you'll see these buttons when more information is available. Tap once to expand and again to collapse.)

Beyond your average personality test

Ever take an online quiz with questions like, "Would you rather stay home and read a book or go to a party?" How are you supposed to answer that? The only reasonable response is, "It depends."

Don't worry: This test is different. We've very carefully written our questions to get to the heart of what makes you tick.

So what can you expect? Well, the Myers-Briggs system is popular everywhere from Fortune 500 companies to online dating websites. So instead of introducing new terms, we'll be using the same Myers-Briggs four-letter personality types (things like ISTJ and ENFP).

But, nearly every other personality test stops with those four letters. We'll be going a step further by breaking those four-letter types down into their Jungian cognitive functions (things like Ti and Se).

So guess what? Contrary to what those hundreds of other terrible personality tests would tell you, it's perfectly normal if you like partying one night but feel like staying home alone to read the next. Because the truth is: No one is 100% an extrovert or 100% an introvert. We're all a bit of both, and your type's cognitive functions will explain why.

Skeptical? You should be

Like I said, there are a lot of bad personality tests out there, and I'm promising a lot.

But, personality typing is all about understanding differences. And different communication styles work best for different types of people. So, let's put that concept to work. If you're a skeptic, click the + button for an alternative introduction to this subject.

Snake oil for sale

You're skeptical, and reasonably so. How is this Myers-Briggs stuff any different from fortune-telling?

You're probably thinking that each of these personality types will be generic enough that anyone can be made to believe that each one applies to them.

Fair concern, but here are three reasons why this system is different:

  1. The professional psychology community does have very legitimate concerns about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (i.e., the most popular "official" personality test), but this website goes well beyond that and into the typing methodology developed by Carl Jung, one of the most celebrated psychologists of all time. It also incorporates many ideas that have been added and improved since his time.
  2. There's no way that all of the types will fit you. If you're dubious, you can quickly skip to the results page and you'll see that each type is quite distinct. Once you really understand the types, there should be no doubt about which one you are, and there's no way to be half way in between two types. Many personality websites get this part wrong. They make it seem, for example, that an INTJ and an INTP are pretty similar because they have three letters in common. In reality, they're completely different because they have none of the same cognitive functions.
  3. This is not simply one of those Internet quizzes where you answer some questions and you're told your type. Rather, you'll be given a list of roughly ranked potential results with information about each. Then it's up to you—the true expert on yourself—to decide which one makes the most sense.

How to trick people

The Barnum Effect is a technique used by magicians and so-called psychics. They promise a hapless victim that they've seen into their mind and written something very specifically tailored to them. In reality, the charlatan simply wrote something vague and general enough that anyone would find some truth in it. Here's a short example:

  1. You like when people admire you, but you can be a little critical of yourself. You sometimes second guess your decisions and are less confident inside than you appear. You're an independent thinker who is at times sociable and at times reserved. You have some weaknesses that you've learned to overcome but you might not yet be living up to your full potential.

Getting it right

In contrast, take a look at these three Jungian personality type summaries:

  1. You've always been a dreamer, and you feel like you can do anything if you put your mind to it. You constantly have new ideas, and you love connecting the dots in your mind. Traditions are overrated. Who cares how things have always been done if there's a better way? You're energized by the unknown, and you're curious about everything. You have some trouble balancing social niceties with telling the hard truth, and you think about past mistakes you've made a lot. You're not necessarily the life of the party, but you get energized by selling your ideas to a group.
  2. You'd consider yourself a very down-to-earth and reliable person. You don't have your head in the clouds, and you like focusing on what's going on around you. You highly value someone's personal experiences, and you trust what you can see and touch, not vague concepts and ideas that have never been tested in reality. It's important to build upon sound traditions and to leave behind a legacy based on a strong work ethic. Why reinvent the wheel if we already have something that works just fine? You're a bit on the quiet side, but you get along well with people as long as they have manners and treat you with respect.
  3. You're an idealist with a very finely defined internal value system. To you, a life well lived means being authentic to yourself. You have strong convictions, and you have trouble with conflict. It can be hard for you to lead others to take on your cause, and you need time alone to recharge. You have ideas you believe in, but it can be difficult to actually act on them and make something happen. You have rich internal worlds of fantasy and imagination that you like to retreat to, and you might be very interested in an art like music or writing.

Sure, we all act a bit differently in different situations, but those are three fundamentally different ways of looking at the world. There are 16 types, and they all take in, process, and act on information differently.


Personality Type Theory 101

There are 16 personality types, each made up of 4 letters called dimensions.

There are a lot of common misconceptions about Myers-Briggs personality typing...

If you've read anything about Myers-Briggs, you've probably seen descriptors like "Feeler" and "Thinker." The logic behind these ideas is reasonable, but the words Myers and Briggs chose to represent them are confusing. Being a Thinker doesn't mean you're a robot incapable of feeling feelings, and being a Feeler doesn't mean you're overly emotional and unable to use logic.

Also, remember that your type simply reveals your preferences for how you take in information and make decisions. You probably use all of the letters every day, but your four-letter type combination reveals which ones come most naturally to you.

Here's a short overview of the 4 dimensions (to avoid confusion, we'll ignore the badly-chosen words they stand for and just look at the letters):


Is it really so black and white?

People in the psychology community often look down on Myers-Briggs, calling the system too simplistic. For example, what if you feel like you're in between a T and an F? Or, just because you're an S, does that mean you have no N whatsoever? What if you're a bit of everything?

That's where Jungian type dynamics come in. The truth is that a T does indeed have some F in them, an N has some S in them as well, and everyone is part I and part E.

The T/F and N/S dimensions actually have "sub-types" called cognitive functions. T splits into Ti and Te, N splits into Ni and Ne, etc. The 'i' stands for introverted and the 'e' for extroverted, so that Ti refers to a T facing inward and Te refers to a T facing outward. As you can see, even though two types might have a letter like T in common, each type's version of T might manifest very differently.

All 16 types have four cognitive functions (each of which can be Ti, Te, Fi, Fe, Si, Se, Ni, or Ne), and they're in a very specific order:

  1. Primary: the function you use the most and are most comfortable with (it's unconscious because it comes so naturally to you)
  2. Auxiliary: complements your primary and is used quite often as well (this one requires conscious thought until you truly master it later in life)
  3. Tertiary: less developed and takes longer to mature (you begin life fairly weak in this area, but through conscious effort you can become skilled in it)
  4. Inferior: matures latest in life, and it can be thought of as your biggest weakness (unconscious, and it can be especially troublesome because you might be less aware of it or have trouble understanding how it works)

To recap, every type has 4 dimensions and 4 cognitive functions. For example, an ENTP has the dimensions E, N, T, and P, and it has the cognitive functions Ne, Ti, Fe, and Si. Notice how even though there's no F in ENTP, they actually still do use an F-based cognitive function. Figuring out a type's cognitive functions can be a little tricky, but here's how to do it if you're interested (otherwise, the final page of the test will list them all)...

  1. First, some context: The second dimension is known as the information-gathering dimension, and it's always N or S. The third dimension is known as the decision-making dimension, and it's always T or F. The fourth dimension, P or J, determines if the primary cognitive function is an information-gathering one or a decision-making one. Finally, two of the cognitive functions are always introverted and two are always extroverted.
  2. Ok, check the type's fourth dimension, either P or J. If it's a J, it means that their decision-making function (which is always either T or F) will be extroverted, so Te or Fe. If it's a P, it means that their decision-making function will be introverted, so Ti or Fi.
  3. In the case of ISFJ, the fourth dimension is a J and the decision-making function is an F. Therefore, the F will become an Fe.
  4. Next, check the type's first dimension, either E or I. The primary cognitive function will always follow the type's first dimension. So since ISFJ starts with an I, it means that the primary function will have an i. Now, look back to the function we already decided for the ISFJ: Fe. Since it has an e, that means it can't be the primary function, so it must be the secondary one. Therefore, the information-gathering function (always S or N) must be the primary. So since the ISFJ has an S, it has to be Si.
  5. That's actually everything we need. The third function is always the opposite of the second function. So in this case the opposite of Fe is Ti. And, the fourth function is always the opposite of the first function. So in this case, the opposite of Si is Ne (because i is the opposite of e and N is the opposite of S — "opposite" in the sense that they're the two choices in their dimensions: I/E and N/S).
  6. So, for ISFJs, the functions are Si, Fe, Ti, Ne.
  7. One more example: Let's do ESTP.
  8. It ends with P, so we know that their T/F will be introverted. ESTP contains T, so it will be Ti.
  9. Since we already found Ti, we know that the S/N will have to be an e. ESTP contains S, so it will be Se. And since ESTP starts with an E, we know that the Se will be the primary function because of its e.
  10. That's all we need. We know that the third will be the opposite of the second (Ti), so Fe. And the fourth will be the opposite of the first (Se), so Ni.
  11. So, ESTP breaks down into Se Ti Fe Ni.


Keep in mind as you take the test

Each section will help you decide which of the cognitive function variants you're most comfortable with (e.g., Fi or Fe, Si or Se, etc.).

Everyone uses all of the cognitive functions throughout their lives, but some should seem far more familiar than others. That's why it's important to indicate how strongly you identify with each one.

To get the best results...

Be honest and answer what feels most like who you truly are, not who you wish you were or who you feel forced to be by external pressures like work or family.

Remember that personality types apply to your whole life, so think in broad terms about the words used (e.g., "project" could mean either a task at work or a hobby at home).

It can be helpful to compare yourself to other people you know (or even to characters in movies or books). For example, if a question asks whether you like group brainstorming, consider where you fall on the spectrum at work — when brainstorming time comes around, are you one of the most excited or least excited of your colleagues? Similarly, if the question asks about your relationship with the physical world, do you tend to be clumsier than your friends, or are you the person constantly pointing out beautiful or interesting things around you?

Choose the "neutral" option if you feel that both choices apply equally well or if you can't decide.

The test should take 15-20 minutes. Let's get started.

You're all done!

Please bookmark this page or copy the current URL to save your results and come back to them later.

Your results are below, ordered from most to least likely. But the point values listed on each type are just a general guide. You're the only one who knows how your mind truly works, so read through the top few results and pick the one you think is the best match. Also, the bar charts only tell part of the story since the quiz included questions about other aspects of type beyond just the functions.

By the way, I created this test because I love Myers-Briggs. I've found personality typing to be hugely beneficial in my own personal growth and in my relationships, and I wanted to help people understand that Myers-Briggs goes way beyond just the four letters. I'm also a life coach, so if you'd like to work with someone who has expertise in Myers-Briggs, especially N's and NT's in particular (I'm an ENTP), please email me or visit my coaching website to learn more about my specialty and my own journey toward escaping my feelings of loneliness and stuckness. Thanks for reading!

Here are some tips and reminders for interpreting your results:

  • Pay more attention to the four functions than to the four-letter combinations. And remember that just because two types have three out of the four letters in common does not necessarily mean they're almost the same. For example, an INTP is very different from an INTJ — they have completely opposite-facing cognitive functions (i.e., all the introverted functions of one are extroverted in the other). In contrast, an INTP and ENTP have the exact same cognitive functions, just in a different order.
  • The primary function is most important. It should seem like second nature to you — something you use so often that it's mostly unconscious. Reading its description should almost feel like someone has read your mind.
  • The auxiliary (secondary) function should feel familiar too, but it might require more conscious thought to use.
  • The tertiary function is less developed. It's still a big part of you, but you probably struggle with it a bit sometimes (it might get you into trouble). This one takes years to master, so you'll feel more or less comfortable with it depending on your age and how hard you've worked on this part of you.
  • The inferior function is your weakness. This should be something you often have trouble with, and you might have a lot of difficulty understanding how other people do it because it seems so unintuitive to you. But, it's also a part of you, so under stress or in certain situations you might actually recognize yourself strangely leaning in that direction.
  • The "internal conflict" represents the two different directions you often feel yourself pulled in for how to approach a situation.
    For example, an ENTP struggles between Ti (logic, accuracy) and Fe (harmony, social conventions). So, she might be conflicted between telling a friend a hard truth versus softening the blow; or, between doing what seems logically correct versus following what society says is appropriate.
    Another example: An ENFP struggles between Fi (authenticity) and Te (efficiency), so he might be conflicted between taking control of a situation to get results and staying true to the internal values he's set for himself.
  • Notice how every type has two introverted functions and two extroverted functions. We're all a little extroverted sometimes and introverted other times. The trick is that true extroverts will have an extroverted function as their primary function (look for an 'e'), and true introverts will have an introverted one (look for an 'i').
  • Set a bookmark or copy the link at the bottom of this page to save your results.
  • There's so much more to explore from here. This page is simply meant to help you identify your type. Once you've done that, take a look at the links after each type for more complete profiles. Beyond those links, another excellent resource for personality information is Personality Hacker.

Your Results: Cognitive Functions

Which one sounds most like you?